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Ancient Egypt
Home | An Introduction | Pyramids of Egypt | "Beautiful Festival of the Valley" | The Mystery of Cleopatra's Death | Photo Gallery | Duties of Gods and Goddesses | Gods and Goddesses Family Tree | The Process of Mummification | Egyptian Writing | Craft Workers | Egyptians' Theory of the Creation of the Earth | Egyptionary | My Own Work | King Tutankhamun | Egyptian Menu | Ancient Egyptian Fun | Bibliography
Duties of Gods and Goddesses

In the underworld, Osiris sits in his throne, where he is praised by the souls of the just. If a person says to Osiris "I have not stolen and I have not lied", then he would decide if he/she had directed a respectful life. All those who pass the tests of the underworld become worthy to enter The Blessed Land, the part of the underworld that is like the land of the living, but without sorrow or pain.

Anubis, who was the original god of the dead before Osiris took over, became the god of mummification and of the underworld. He watches over mummification processes to ensure that no mistakes are being made. He also conducts souls through the underworld. After being interrogated, a person's heart is weighed on a scale called the Scales of Justice. If honest, the person is granted a safe passage to the afterlife. The hearts of the dishonest are eaten by the goddess known as the Devourer of the Dead, who is part crocodile, part lion and part hippopotomus.


This overweight bearded dwarf who is the protection of childbirth is not Egyptian at all. During the birth of a child, Bes would dance around the room, yelling to frighten away evil spirits who might put a curse on the child. After the baby was born, he would entertain the child. It was believed that whenever a child laughed, Bes was somewhere in the room.

Here is some brief information about each Egyptian God and Goddess...
Atum: the sun god (later on known as Atum-Re, then Ra)

Anubis: god of embalming and the dead

Aten: form of the sun god Ra

Bastet: cat goddess

Bes: protector of pregnant women, newborn babies and families

Geb: the god of the Earth

Hapy: god of innundation

Hathor: goddess of love and joy

Horus: the god of the sky

Isis: protective goddess (used magic spells to help others)

Khepri: the god of creation, movement of the sun and rebirth

Khnum: creator god and the god of innundation

Ma'at: the God of truth and justice

Nephthys: protective goddess of the dead

Nun: the waters of chaos



Also known as Bast or Ailuros, Bast the moon goddess is the second most well-known Egyptian goddess. To those who are kind to her, she gives blessings. Although, she is sometimes listed as the goddess who punishes those who are sinful. One creature Bast would never dream of harming is a cat, because they are sacred to her.

Click here for a chart that shows how each of the Egyptian gods and goddesses are related!!!

This great god of wisdom is unusual. Some people say he created himself through the power of language. He is the inventor of magic, creator of music and the messenger of gods. He questions the dead's souls about their deeds in life before their heart is weighed against the feather of Maat. He is also the great counselor and the other gods often went to him for advice.

Nut: the sky-goddess

Osiris: god of the dead and the ruler of the underworld

Ptah: the god of craftsmen

Ra: the sun God

Ra-Horakhty: combination of the gods Ra and Horus; the god of the rising sun

Sekhmet: the goddess of war

Seshat: goddess of writing and measurement
Seth: the god of chaos

Shu: god of the air

Sobek: a Nile god

Tawaret: goddess who protected pregnant women during pregnancy and childbirth
Tefnut: goddess of moisture

Thoth: god of knowledge and scribes